Our research

Our research examines the behavioral processes underlying irrational and complex decision making. Using a use-inspired approach to basic research, our studies seek to bridge the science and practice of behavioral decision making to promote sustainable health outcomes. Borrowing from the emerging sciences of behavioral and neuroeconomics, we translate principles of economics, behavioral science, and psychology to quantitatively model, predict, understand, and ultimately intervene on poor decision making. Areas of translational focus include understanding and improving decision making associated with (a) complex choices involving delayed or probabilistic outcomes, (b) environmental sustainability, and (c) behavioral addictions.

Selected Recent Publications


Behavioral Economic concepts and analyses

novel applications of behavioral economics


  • Critchfield, T. S., & Reed, D. D. (2017). The fuzzy concept of applied behavior analysis research. The Behavior Analyst, 40(1), 123-159. doi:10.1007/s40614-017-0093-x 

  • Critchfield, T. S., Doepke, K. J., Epting, L. K., Becirevic, A., Reed, D. D., Fienup, D. M., Kremseiter, J. L., & Ecott, C. L. (2017). Normative emotional responses to behavior analysis jargon or How not to use words to win friends and influence people. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 10(2), 97-106. doi:10.1007/s40617-016-0161-9 

  • Becirevic, A., Critchfield, T. S., & Reed, D. D. (2016). On the social acceptability of behavior-analytic terms: Crowdsourced comparisons of lay and technical language. The Behavior Analyst, 39(2), 305-317. doi:10.1007/s40614-016-0067-4 
  • ​Critchfield, T. S., Becirevic, A., & Reed, D. D. (2016). In Skinner's early footsteps: Analyzing verbal behavior in large published corpora. The Psychological Record, 66, 639-647. doi:10.1007/s40732-016-0197-9 
  • ​Reed, D. D. (2014). Determining how, when, and whether you should publish outside the box: Sober advice for early career behavior analysts. The Behavior Analyst, 37, 83-86. doi:10.1007/s40614-014-0012-3

operant demand purchase task methods

  • Reed, D. D., Naudé, G. P., Salzer, A. R., Peper, M., Monroe-Gulick, A. L., Gelino, B. W., Harsin, J. D., Foster, R. N. S., Nighbor, T. D., Kaplan, B. A., Koffarnus, M. N., & Higgins, S. T. (in press). Behavioral economic measurement of cigarette demand: A descriptive review of published approaches to the Cigarette Purchase Task. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. 
  • Salzer, A. R., Strickland, J. C., Stoops, W. W., & Reed, D. D. (in press). An evaluation of fixed and randomized price sequence on the alcohol purchase task. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pha0000421
  • Zvorsky, I., Nighbor, T. D., Kurti, A. N., DeSarno, M., Naude, G., Reed, D. D., & Higgins, S. T. (2019). Sensitivity of hypothetical purchase task indices when studying substance use: A systematic literature review. Preventive Medicine, 128, 105789. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.105789 
  • Bergeria, C. L., Heil, S. H., Davis, D. R., Streck, J. M., Sigmon, S. C., Bunn, J. Y., Tidey, J. W., Arger, C. A., Reed, D. D., Hughes, T., Hughes, J. R., Gaalema, D. E., Stitzer, M. L., & Higgins, S. T. (2019). Evaluating the utility of the Modified Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire and Cigarette Purchase Task for predicting acute relative reinforcing efficacy of cigarettes varying in nicotine content. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 197(1), 56-64. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.01.004 
  • ​Kaplan, B. A., Foster, R. N. S, Reed, D. D., Amlung, M., Murphy, J. G., & MacKillop, J. (2018). Understanding alcohol motivation using the Alcohol Purchase Task: A methodological systematic review. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 191, 117-140. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.06.029 
  • ​Roma, P. G., Reed, D. D., DiGennaro Reed, F. D., & Hursh, S. R. (2017). Progress of and prospects for hypothetical purchase task questionnaires in consumer behavior analysis and public policy. The Behavior Analyst, 40, 329-342. doi:10.1007/s40614-017-0100-2 

operant demand and substance use

  • Naudé, G. P., Reed, D. D., Thornton, T. J., & Amlung, M. (in press). Dual use of alcohol and cannabis among college students: A reinforcer pathologies approach. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. doi:https://doi.org/10.1037/pha0000369 
  • Salzer, A. R., Gelino, B. W., & Reed, D. D. (2019). Left-digit pricing effects in a high-resolution examination of hypothetical operant demand for alcohol. Behavioural Processes, 165, 51-57. doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2019.05.020
  • Amlung, M., Reed, D. D., Morris, V., Aston, E. R., Metrik, J., & MacKillop, J. (2019). Price elasticity of illegal vs legal cannabis: A Behavioral economic substitutability analysis. Addiction, 114(1), 112-118. doi:10.1111/add.14437 
  • Higgins, S. T., Heil, S. H., Sigmon, S. C., Tidey, J. W., Gaalema, D. E., Hughes, J. R., Stitzer, M. L., Durand, H., Bunn, J. Y., Priest, J. S., Arger, C. A., Miller, M. E., Bergeria, C. L., Davis, D. R., Streck, J. M., Reed, D. D., Skelly, J. M., & Tursi, L. (2017). Addiction potential of reduced nicotine content cigarettes in populations with psychiatric disorders and other vulnerabilities to tobacco addiction. JAMA Psychiatry, 74(10), 1056-1064. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.2355 
  • Kaplan, B. A., & Reed, D. D. (2018). Happy hour drink specials in the alcohol purchase task. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Advanced online publication. doi:10.1037/pha0000174


  • McKerchar, T. L., Kaplan, B. A., Reed, D. D., Suggs, S. A., & Franck, C. T. (2019). Discounting environmental outcomes: Temporal and probabilistic air-quality gains and losses. Behavior Analysis: Research & Practice, 19(3), 273-280. doi:10.1037/bar0000138 (Peer Reviewed)
  • Szczucinski, D., Gelino, B. W., Cintron, C. J., Becirevic, A., & Reed, D. D. (2020). Increasing composting in high-traffic university settings. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 13, 22-28. doi:10.1007/s40617-019-00358-1 
  • Kaplan, B. A., Gelino, B. W., & Reed, D. D. (2018). A behavioral economic approach to green consumerism: Demand for reusable shopping bags. Behavior and Social Issues, 27, 20-30. doi:10.5210/bsi.v.27i0.8003 
  • Kaplan, B. A., Reed, D. D., & McKerchar, T. L. (2014). Using a visual analogue scale to assess delay, social, and probability discounting of an environmental loss. The Psychological Record, 64, 261-269. doi:10.1007/s40732-014-0041-z
  • Reed, D. D., Kaplan, B. A., Roma, P. G., & Hursh, S. R. (2014). Inter-method reliability of progression sizes in a hypothetical purchase task: Implications for empirical public policy. The Psychological Record, 64, 671-679. doi:10.1007/s40732-0176-1
  • Hirst, J. M., Reed, D. D., Kaplan, B. A., & Miller, J. R. (2013). Making it easier to be green: A single case demonstration of the effects of computer defaults to conserve energy in a university computer lab. Sustainability: The Journal of Record, 6, 340-344. doi:10.1089/sus.2013.9827
  • Hirst, J. M., Miller, J. R., Kaplan, B. A., & Reed, D. D. (2013). Watts Up? PRO AC Power Meter for automated energy recording: A product review. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 6, 82-95.
  • Reed, D. D., Partington, S. W., Kaplan, B. A., Roma, P., & Hursh, S. (2013). Behavioral economic analyses of demand for fuel in North American transportation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46, 651-655. doi:10.1002/jaba.64